This chapter is organized into four sections: “Knowing a language, Linguistic competence, Communicative competence, and The influence of communicative competence”. “Knowing a language”, gives an overview of the main questions related to knowing a language. The author reminds us the grammar-translation language teaching method mentioned in the previous chapter, Chapter 4. He points out that knowing the grammar and vocaabulary is crucial but being able to put the knowledge into practice is required. In “Linguistic competence” part, Cook argues that isolating the formal systems of language (i.e. its pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary) either for learning or for analysis, is a useful first step. Theoretical linguistics provides a more fundamental and rather different, argument for separating the formal systems of language from other kinds of knowledge and skills, as in particular work of Noam Chomsky. The author suggests that we need to take further account of his ideas. Chomsky claims that all human beings are born with the innate faculty. In this view, Universal Grammar (UG) plays an important role in learning a language. It forms linguistic competence. According to Chomsky, language is more biological than social. Some features that involved in its use like body language or cultural knowledge aren’t separated from language. “Communicative competence” part provides an overview of the definition of the term itself and history of it. In the late 1960s Del Hymes made an attempt to describe communicative competence. Is it offered as contrast to Chomsky’s linguistic competence. Hymes suggested that four types of knowledge, possibility,feasibility,appropriatenesss, and attestedness are required for successful communication. In terms of possibility, a communicatively competent speaker knows what is possible in a language. Knowledge of possibility is not enough for communication. However, it does not mean...
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